Bank centralny

To naczelna instytucja systemu bankowego każdego kraju. Tworzony jest przez państwo w celu pełnienia funkcji istotnych dla działalności gospodarki danego kraju. Emituje znaki pieniężne będące środkiem płatniczym, pelni również funkcje banku kredytującego rząd oraz banku zwierzchniego dla innych banków. Prowadzi aktywną politykę zmierzającą do kontroli podaży pieniądza, tempa inflacji oraz stabilizacji kursu walutowego.
Najistotniejsze instrumenty stosowane przez banki centralne to:

  • operacje otwartego rynku,
  • polityka rezerw obowiązkowych
  • polityka stóp procentowych,

W Polsce bankiem centralnym jest Narodowy Bank Polski.

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