To administracyjne obniżenie kursu waluty kraju w stosunku do innych walut.
Termin dewaluacja stosowany jest w przypadku krajów stosujących system sztywnego kursu walutowego, czyli arbitralnie ustalanego przez władze monetarne (z reguły Bank Centralny danego kraju).
Dewaluacja następuje wówczas, gdy władze monetarne danego kraju ustalają nowy niższy sztywny kurs waluty w stosunku do innych walut.
Powodami przeprowadzania dewaluacji mogą być:

  • Wspieranie eksportu danego kraju – Obniżenie kursu waluty danego kraju powoduje, że eksport do krajów o innej walucie staje się bardziej opłacalny. Po sprzedaży dobra za obcą walutę i zamianie tej waluty na krajową otrzymuje się większą ilość jednostek pieniężnych niż przed dewaluacją.
  • Chęć poprawienia bilansu płatniczego kraju – W kraju o ujemnym bilansie płatniczym, importującym więcej niż eksportującym, dewaluacja wykorzystywana jest do poprawienia sytuacji płatniczej. Gdy dzięki dewaluacji eksport staje się bardziej opłacalny i rośnie, a import staje się droższy i jest ograniczany, w niektórych przypadkach może to poprawiać bilans płatniczy kraju.
  • Bliższe dostosowanie kursów walutowych do realiów rynkowych – W krajach o sztywnym kursie walutowym, gdy zaczyna on znacznie odbiegać od kursu, który występowałby w warunkach płynnego systemu kursu, powstaje oczekiwanie, że wkrótce nastąpi dewaluacja. Wywołuje to spekulacyjny popyt na obce waluty w oczekiwaniu zysku ze ich sprzedaży po dewaluacji. Wywołuje to presję na organy państwowe, które sprzedają walutę po sztywnym kursie i których rezerwy walutowe zaczynają się kurczyć. Dewaluacja dokonywana jest więc po to, aby zmniejszyć spekulacyjny popyt na obce waluty.
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