W finansach i ekonomii to transakcja mająca na celu wykorzystanie różnicy w cenach tego samego dobra na dwóch różnych rynkach lub na tym samym rynku, lecz w dwóch różnych postaciach.

Dokonując arbitrażu (wykonując transakcję arbitrażową) inwestor (arbitrażysta) dokonuje jednoczesnego zakupu i sprzedaży tego samego dobra po dwóch różnych cenach osiągając zysk wynikający z różnicy cen. Ze względu na jednoczesność zakupu i sprzedaży, wynik transakcji arbitrażowej jest z góry znany. Transakcje arbitrażowe są więc wolne od ryzyka.

Dana transakcja jest transakcją arbitrażową jedynie wtedy, gdy zakup i sprzedaż odbywają się równocześnie. Jeśli występuje pomiędzy nimi istotny odstęp czasowy, transakcja nie jest zaliczana do arbitrażowych.

Arbitraż najczęściej wykonywany jest na:

  • Walutach
  • Akcjach
  • Obligacjach
  • Towarach masowych (np. węgiel)

Przykłady arbitrażu:
Arbitraż inter-market na akcjach
Akcje przedsiębiorstwa alfa są notowane na giełdzie papierów wartościowych w Luksemburgu po 100, a na Giełdzie Papierów wartościowych w Warszawie po 102. Arbitrażysta może wykorzystać tą różnicę kupując akcje w Luksemburgu i sprzedając w Warszawie, zarabiając na każdej akcji 2 jednostki.

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